Архив за Сентябрь 14th, 2016

Influence of technology level of fuel on the efficiency of operation of internal combustion engines of motor-and-tractor vehicles

    M.A. Kerimov (1), DSc in Engineering
    R.N. Safiullin (2), DSc in Engineering
    A.V. Marusin (2), Engineer

    (1) Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Saint Petersburg – Pushkin, Russia, martan-rs@yandex.ru
    (2) Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Saint Petersburg, Russia, safravi@mail.ru

Abstract
The effect of energoinformational field created by Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on the fuel and on fuel supply system of internal combustion engines leads to the improvement of operational performance of motor-and-tractor vehicles. Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles is a centrifugal-vortex source creating a stream of particles in vertical direction. The stream of particles affects any device in its area of influence. The principle of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles is based on the energoinformational concept of the structure of matter and on effects generated by gravity waves. Today the mechanism of this interaction in terms of classical science is understudied. Studies carried out on an automated test bench system in Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering are aimed at quantitative and qualitative assessment of the effect occasioned by bombardment of fuel and internal combustion engine with heavy particles stream. The obtained results show a positive effect of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on operational parameters of internal combustion engines. Primarily it’s the increasing of fuel efficiency and reducing of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The comprehensive research will allow to form conceptual framework of the effect of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on the technology level of used fuel, as well as assess the impact of this level on the efficiency of motor-and-tractor vehicles in general. The aim of further researches in the subject area is to study the systemic effects that occur during the operation of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles.

Keywords:
technology level of fuel; Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles; energoinformational field; efficiency of motor-and-tractor vehicles.

Technology of solid mineral fertilizers application by means of STA-5TM transport-technological unit as part of specialized Ural-432065 vehicle chassis

    A.S. Shkel’ (1), PhD in Engineering
    M.A. Kozlovskaya (2), PhD in Engineering
    T.D. Dzotsenidze (3), DSc in Engineering

    (1) Moscow Technological University, Moscow, Russia, shkel-as@yandex.ru
    (2) Central research and development automobile and engine institute NAMI, Moscow, Russia, nauka113@mail.ru
    (3) Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow K.A. Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia, dtengiz@yandex.ru

Abstract
The research of process operations for transport-technological unit is of particular interest for the assessment of economic efficiency of operation. Features of process operations are studied on the example of the transport-technological unit with STA-5TM replaceable technological superstructure for solid mineral fertilizers application based on specialized all-wheel drive Ural-432065 vehicle chassis. Common methods of scientific organization of labor serve as theoretical basis for the development of process technology of mechanized operations in agriculture, by analogy with the technology of performance of various works in industrial plants. During solid mineral fertilizers application special attention is payed to the proper organization, full mechanization of work, observance of deadlines, application rate and uniformity of fertilization. The STA-5TM technological superstructure provides application of the established rate with adjustment interval of 0.05 t/ha and motion speed of the unit up to 12 km/hour. Before the operation, the transport-technological unit should be prepared and adjusted for qualitative performance of the process. Setting value of fertilizer application rate is determined with the use of a slide rule and depends on the fertilizer grade, grasp width, operating speed, standard rate of fertilizer usage. For standard application rate, the desired position of main slide gate of batcher and the speed of conveyor belt are determined. Calculation results of kinematic characteristics of the transport-technological unit during mineral fertilizers application for various ways of movement are presented. The technology of solid mineral fertilizers application by means of STA-5TM transport-technological unit as part of specialized Ural-432065 vehicle chassis provides the ability to improve the operation efficiency with the growth of labor productivity and reduction of cost of the final product.

Keywords:
transport-technological unit; Ural-432065 vehicle chassis; STA-5TM replaceable technological superstructure; fertilizer application; process technology.

Robotics technology and agrochemical support of plant cultivation

    V.G. Sychev (1), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, DSc in Engineering
    R.A. Afanas’ev (1), DSc in Engineering
    Z.A. Godzhaev (2), DSc in Engineering
    A.P. Grishin (2), DSc in Engineering
    A.A. Grishin (2), PhD in Economics

    (1) D.N. Pryanishnikov All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, Moscow, Russia, info@vniia-pr.ru
    (2) All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Moscow, Russia, vim-transport@mail.ru

Abstract
The article provides an overview of methods for monitoring of crop condition and variability (diversity) of soil fertility in the field. Two ways of their implementation having fundamental importance to robotic technologies are marked, namely the remote and at-ground ones. Remote methods for identification of diversity of soil fertility and crop condition are infrared spectrometry of crops by means of helicopters, quadcopters, drones and other low-altitude vehicles capable to shoot the condition of targets by means of attached camera, and also the radar-photometric remote sensing which allows to mark the field areas with different agrochemicals properties in real-time mode. Among the at-ground methods of agrochemical investigation of soils and crops special attention is payed to the mesh method of soil sampling with the use of automated samplers equipped with navigational devices, the usage of relation of soil fertility with its topography and the scanning of electrical conductivity of soil. The article presents a variant of identification of field contours of soil fertility during the automatic determination of productivity of crops (principally grain-crops) in harvesting process. A block diagram of implementation of this method is given. The obtained data is used for the construction of field productivity map, which allows to divide the areas (contours) on levels of productivity. A tracked chassis with hybrid power plant, motion control equipment and machine vision device is described. The chassis serves as the practical basis for development of robotic technologies in plant cultivation, including the fertilizer distributor that will become the base robotic unit in case of full robotization of agrochemical support of plant cultivation based on unmanned mobile power units.

Keywords:
robotics technology; agrochemistry; soil fertility; monitoring; fertilizer application; unmanned mobile power unit.

Efficiency of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping

    A.I. Bur’yanov, DSc in Engineering
    Yu.O. Goryachev, PhD in Engineering
    M.A. Bur’yanov, PhD in Engineering

    North Caucasus Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, Zernograd, Russia, burjanov2015@yandex.ru

Abstract
Grain harvesting on most farms in Russia lasts up to 25-30 days, because of the deficit of combines; that results to 30% harvest losses. With introduction of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping, the performance of harvesting units is increased by 1.5-2 times, which allows to cut down the harvesting duration and to reduce the fuel consumption by 35-45%. But grain losses after passing of harvesting units are increased and the haulm stand appears on field, which stimulates moisture accumulation. Additional operation for haulm stand treatment is required, such as disk harrowing or chopping and spreading on field. According to the state standard no. 53056–2008, the efficiency of mechanized technologies and machine complexes is defined during formation of optimal structure of machine and tractor fleet for a typical farm, on the criteria of minimum of total costs. The paper deals with efficiency evaluation of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping and of a traditional technology through comparing the total costs of work performance by means of optimal machine and tractor fleets of a typical farm. For that, earlier designed mathematical model and algorithm-program complex are improved. Investigations are performed on the example of a typical farm of the south of Rostov region with 5000 hectares of cultivated area. According to their results, it is found that for such farm the total costs are 31 499 thousands rubles in case of grain harvesting by means of stripping with duration of 10 days, and 35 325 thousands rubles in case of traditional technology with duration of 13 days.

Keywords:
technology; harvesting; stripping; optimization; typical farm; total costs; damages of production losses.

Influence of reinforcement of ploughshares surface on their thickness wear

    N.Yu. Kozhukhova, PhD in Engineering
    N.V. Sinyaya, PhD in Engineering

    Bryansk State Agrarian University, Kokino, Bryansk region, Russia, spo@bgsha.com

Abstract
Wear intensity of working surface of a part is the major factor influencing its durability. To reduce the wear of parts of working organs of tillage machines, a number of processing methods of their hardening is created; one of them is welding reinforcement. The assessment of ploughshare thickness wear and of influence of its surface reinforcement on wear intensity is carried out. Ploughshares in as-delivered condition and ploughshares after reinforcement according to three processing methods are used as objects of the research. Wear of reinforcing beads height and wear of ploughshare thickness between them are determined. Attrition of the beads occurs unevenly along the length of sock because of the high pressure of soil on ploughshare sock. It is also necessary to consider the fan-shaped soil movement along the ploughshare sock. It is shown that reinforcing beads essentially slow down the abrasive wear of ploughshare thickness between them. That is related to the fact that riffles create the conditions for the formation of fluidized layer between them, and thereby less soil particles get into contacting area. The quantity of abrasive particles contacting with working surface and their pressure on ploughshare body are decreased. When attrition of welding bead is flush with working surface, the composite surface is formed; thereon the maximum hardness is observed, which contributes to the increase in abrasive wear resistance. Traces of reinforcing beads with high degree of hardness also have a positive effect. Due to breaking-in of surface and forming of composite surface, the wear intensity decreases.

Keywords:
ploughshare; welding reinforcement; wear; wear intensity; thickness; height of bead.

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